Tuesday, April 22, 2014

Sirius and its planet SiriusAb.

The Planet Sirius Ab located 8.3 light years from Earth.

Guedes et al(2007) discusses the probability of exoplanets existing on the alpha Centauri system,which is closest to Earth at 4 light years, based on projections using a computer algorhythm (1).

In their paper are various mathematical algorhythms that seem to predict over an extended period of millions of years the formation of planets that go on to stabilised orbits and with finite, rocky natures and orbits at various distances from the binary. The other companion, Proxima Centauri is not considered as the influence at 10,000AU is minor on the main pair.


In this paper, I use the projections of Guedes et al and include the Sirius star system which is binary, Sirius A being twice the mass of our Sun and Sirius B , a white dwarf companion, as massive as the Sun but about the size of the Earth (2). Further, the system is a S-type where the planet orbits SiriusA only and not P-type.











For a P-type situation, the orbital mechanics would indicate a stabilised orbit at twice the seperation of the binary pair and this amounts to 40 AU or more and this corresponds to being out of any habitable zone. Planets may exist at this distance but they have not been seen so far for nearby star systems. Sirius B has a closest approach distance of 7.5 AU and therefore any planet existing and orbiting around SiriusA would need to be much closer, say about 6 AU in order to be in a stable orbit not severely affected by the white dwarf.(5)

Alpha Centauri AB

The system is unique because both companions are sun-like stars with similar masses and no detectable planets as can be seen presently from Earth. Using the B companion, Guedes et al has gone on to collate probability of planet formation in the event of the formation of a protoplanetary disc, an embryonic solar system, that will go on to coalesce to form the planets.

I would suggest that in doing so, they have set a model on which my projections on the Sirian star system can be similarly used. But there are variations and complications. To avoid going into detailed orbital mechanics, I have simplified the approach, making it as least technical but nevertheless detailed enough for the professional astronomer to pursue for further study at will.

Complications
These are:
  1. Sirius AB is a binary with a 50.09 year orbit of the white dwarf companion.
  2. Sirius A is more luminous than the Sun and twice as massive.
  3. Orbital stability considerations limit any planet formed near Sirius A to orbits which would not interfere with the returning white dwarf, Sirius B(5).
  4. This in itself means that no stable orbit or planet can exist that is suitable for life further than a certain distance from the Sirius A – the distance calculated from some papers indicate at least a seperation from Sirius B by 1.5 AU.
  5. Planets formed at Sirius A therefore can only be within the orbital distance from its parent at maximum of distance 6AU before serious perturbations result from Sirius B's gravitational pull.








The above figure indicates what a viewer might see upon entering the Sirius system. The planet b orbits Sirius A whilst the orbit of Sirius B is located into the plane of the paper and the whole system then orbits around its barycenter.

Based on the projections of the paper by Guedes and Quintana, we can expect at least 1 earth analog planet for Sirius A. His paper indicates roughly the formation of bodies that are rocky at various distances from the Alpha- Centauri system and there is probability of an Earth analog which might be in the habitable zone of the star.


Calculation of Habitable Zone for Sirius A
The calculations shown below are for the SiriusA system and are referenced from (4).

 


 where L is the stellar luminosity in solar units,Teff is the stellar effective temperature in K units, in this case 9900K,Ts= 5700 K, ai = 2.7619e-5, bi = 3.8095e-9, ao = 1.3786e-4, bo = 1.4286e-9, ris = 0.72, and ros = 1.77. The L value for SiriusA is 25.4.

The habitable zonal exoplanets boundaries lie between both r values. The values after calculations are: ri of 2.705 AU and ro of 5.875AU respectively.


Calculation of orbital radius for planet SiriusAb

Based on an assumption that a planet exists on SiriusA and that it has a 5 year period around this star, we can determine if this theoretical planet can be in the habitable zone of the star and hence possibly have liquid water for life as we know to exist.

Using the Kepler's formula for orbital period of a body in elliptical motion


where T is period in years, a is semi-major axis and μ is standard gravitational parameter,we derive a value for a of 5.8396AU for this planet.







The habitable zones distance (HZD) is given as the formula above,
where r is the distance of the exoplanet from the star in AU units and HZD is the HZD in HZU units. HZD values between -1 and +1 HZU may correspond to planets within the HZ. Based on the values we obtained for SiriusAb, we can punch this into the above equation and we get a value that is very close to +1. The actual value is +0.978.(3) 
 A value greater than plus 1 indicates that it is out of the zone. But our planet seems to have just made it!


Orbital resonances

Drawing from our own solar system, we have the inner planets having a resonance of 1:2:4 for Earth,Venus and Mercury. Gliese 876 with planets e,b and c are similarly in a 1:2:4 resonance(6). It can be so assumed although prematurely that a similar resonance does seem possible for SiriusA. Therefore I postulate the existence of at least 2 more planets with periods of 2.5 years, and 1.25 years on Sirius A and these can be called planets c and d respectively.(6)


Life in High Light Intensity Environments

Any life in the system must be heavily screened by the presence of a thicker ozone layer as well as an X-ray deflection or scatterer.

The amount of UV given off by Sirius A would be very large and to protect the planet's ecosystem, a thicker atmospheric coat of ozone would be very important. A thick atmosphere would also shield the planet by scattering harmful radiation such as X-rays which will be at a peak everytime the Dwarf companion returns every 40 years or so(period is 50.09 years). Sirius B is an X-ray source.

In order to prevent overheating of the planet, the presence of oceans and hence water will act as a heat sink as well as moderate the temperature of the planet. Any greenhouse gases will play a significant role in the heat cycle on the planet.

From this information it can be realized that the planet SiriusAb is therefore about 20 to 40 % larger than Earth.





Thermal infrared spectra of Venus, Earth, and Mars. The 9.6-micron band of ozone is a potential bioindicator. (From R. Hanel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.) Courtesy James Kasting.(3)


At very high light intensities, we could expect that life would take several options in order to exist and these are:
  1. The production of very strong pigmentation to prevent cellular damage by the star's intense radiation.
  2. Going underground or deeper into seas to shield from harmful rays.
  3. Production of special exostructures that would shield the organism.
  4. DNA repair mechanisms that can repair damage and enhance protection in ways unknown to humans at present.
  5. Cocoon life that would go into hibernation for years especially when the dark star companion, Sirius B, approaches. Its orbital period is 50.09 years. This means that upon its closest approach its time to swing past SiriusA could be in the region of a few years. This would be a “Dark Phase” in this planet's history as Sirius B is an X-ray source. 
     
    Presence of moons on this planet will result in significant shielding in the planetary ecosystem as this will limit the chaos caused by shifting tectonic plates as the white dwarf approaches as well as limiting tidal fluctuations be they magma or water.


    Theory becomes Dogma!

Many astrobiologists suffer from the Billion-year syndrome. Yes, its a billion or more years for a star to form a planetary system that can go on to produce possible life.

Were they there to see it? Just as the theory of evolution has now become a fact in most scientific circles because this makes the NO GOD NO MAN genesis all the more believable.

There is absolutely NO PROOF that the theory of evolution is fact. Just as there is absolutely no proof that a planet takes a billion years or more to form!

Planets form when conditions that favor formation are there. They can form in deep space without even a star present for light years. These are the rogue planets. There have been quite a few discovered so far. Were they from other star systems and were ejected out? Were they from a supernova explosion which cooled to reform a main pulsar possibly and then some planets? Theory again. Then let me make a good guess.

The Crab Nebula and Pulsars
Magnetar illustration
The Crab Nebula in Taurus, exploded in 1054 AD and has a pulsar present. It is no large imagination to realize that the seeds of this supernova have sown planetary debris which will have accumulated into planetesimals. I would urge all astronomers to look at this system and it will be confirmed that there are planets forming or already existing. 

This therefore will confirm that Planets do NOT take billions of years to form.

 Evidence from supernova explosions indicate that planets form geologically very soon after and there is evidence to suggest that the time period is in the  thousands of years! This will account for the existence of 2 billion planets as projected in some estimates. 

 In 2006, an  MIT scientist, using the Spitzer telescope, and colleagues discovered a planetary circumstellar disc orbiting a magnetar as shown above (courtesy wikipedia). The star went nova about 100,000 years ago and is about 13,000 ly from Earth.

REFERENCES

  1. Formation and detectability of terrestrial planets around αCentauri B. Geudes et al(2007). Astrophysics Journal,679:1582-1587.2008 June 1st.
  2. Piercing the glare: A direct imaging search for planets in the Sirius system. Thalman et al , Astrophysical Journal Letters, 732:L34(5pp), 2011 May 10th.
  3. Kasting, J. F., Whitmire, D. P., and Reynolds, R. T. (1993). Habitable zones around main sequence stars. Icarus, 101, 108-108.
  4. Habitable Zone Distance (HZD) A habitability metric for exoplanets - Planetary Habitability Laboratory.
  5. The ultimate cataclysm: the orbital(in)stability of terrestrial planets in
    exoplanet systems including planets in binaries.Elke Pilat-Lohinger. Intl Journal of Astrobiology8 (3): 175–182 (2009).
  6. Rivera, Eugenio J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Haghighipour, Nader; Meschiari, Stefano (June 2010). "The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A Uranus-mass Fourth Planet for GJ 876 in an Extrasolar Laplace Configuration"

Wednesday, March 19, 2014

Immediate Ban on Dental Amalgam in the Philippines Pushed

Immediate Ban on Dental Amalgam in the Philippines Pushed

It is prudent to get rid of this very dangerous toxin in your body as it will affect your memory as well as immune system.



 Minamata disease was due to this and it has been linked very strongly to birth defects. Whenever you visit your dentist tell them about this and that you DO NOT want mercury based fillings as well as BPA based ones in your teeth.

Sunday, March 9, 2014

The stooges of the Anti-Christ working overtime in the Ukraine

Interview by Cara St Louis with F.William Engdahl on the Ukraine Catharsis which will lead to WWIII soon.
Yes, the bankster hidden hand is behind all this as also are the forces of the London Rothschild Menace.




Also mentioned is "Operation Paperclip" where Nazi's from a losing Germany were brought over to seed the US with their greater "intellectual prowess"; with the likes of V2 rocketeer Wernher Von Braun aka "Father of the Apollo Programme". This subsequently leads to ICBM's and the arms race.

Sunday, March 2, 2014

On the location of the Dajjal (anti-christ) in present times.

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On the location of the Dajjal(anti-Christ) in present times.

The reader is asked to refer to the hadith below of the Blessed Holy Prophet Muhammed on the case of Tamim al Dari, a new convert from Christianity to Islam, who was caught in a storm and then transported to an island (along with 30 other sailors) where he met the Dajjal who was chained.

The reader is to note that all ships of this period,1400 years ago, were wind reliant in order to sail the seas. The wind-powered craft called the Arab Dhow is one such vessel which is able to sail the seas as well as carry a crew of between 30 to 40 people.



 
Arab Dhow. Can you count how many onboard?



It was an excellent vessel and could sail for long voyages but it had a daily mileage of around 30 to 50 km depending on wind conditions and rations on board.
It is very likely that Tamim al Dari was in such a vessel and being caught in a storm that lasted for a month, finally landed on an island.


The Somali Current
The Somali current is very useful for bringing the sea-faring Arabs to Iran,Persian Gulf regions, India and Indonesia (Spice Islands) as well as to Madagascar and Africa. The current is active throughout the year and is strongest during the South-West Monsoons which start in June and tapers off in August. For more details please see this link http://www-pord.ucsd.edu/~ltalley/sio210/Indian/index.html

The current then reverses and flows from Northeast to Southwest in November to January, this being the Northeast Monsoon.



Somali Current, courtesy wikipedia. Map 1.
 


As you can see the current flows northwards and this is where I postulate that Tamim was caught in one of the eddies - be it the Great Whirl or the Socotra Eddy- resulting in the ship being “storm tossed for a month...”. They finally made it out either due to weakening of the Monsoon winds or were fortunate to have steered out and landed on the island of the Dajjal. This would have carried them off to somewhere near the island of Masirah which is located off the coast of Oman or even further north to the Gulf of Oman which is the most likely location. There is a reason for this supposition.

The Island of Masirah.
This is essentially a large desert island, about 90 km in length and can be seen on the above map near the word “Oman”. It was made famous by the failed attempt of USA to rescue hostages held in the US embassy in Tehran in 1980. You can read more about the US debacle and how they lost many men and aircraft trying to land outside of Tehran in the desert - Operation Eagle Claw. The Eagle got whacked here.
This island has an airport that was used by the US as a forward staging post to attack Iran in 1980 under the Carter regime.

The airport is still in use by the Omani government. This island is likely NOT the island of the Dajjal. So where is this island?

The Island of the Dajjal.

The story of Tameem al Dari and the Dajjal.

Fatimah bint Qays said,' I heard the voice of the caller, the caller of the Messenger of Allah saying,' Al-salatu jaami’ah' so I went out to the mosque and I prayed with the Messenger of Allah. I was in the women’s row that was closest to the people. When the Messenger of Allah had finished his prayer, he sat on the minbar and he was smiling. He said, “Let each person stay in the place where he just prayed.” Then he said, “Do you know why I called you together?” They said,' Allah and His Messenger know best.'

He said, “By Allah, I did not call you together for an exhortation or for a warning. I have called you together because Tameem al-Dari was a Christian and he came and swore allegiance and became Muslim, and told me something which agrees with what I was telling you about the Dajjal. He told me that he sailed in a ship with thirty men of Lakhm and Judhaam and they were tossed by the waves of the sea for a month. Then they came to an island at sunset. They sat in a small rowing-boat and landed on that island. They were met by a beast with a great deal of hair and they could not distinguish his face from his back because he was so hairy. They said, ‘Woe to you, what are you?’ It said, ‘I am al-Jassaasah.’ They said, ‘What is al-Jassaasah?’ It said, ‘Oh people, go to this man in the monastery for he is keen to know about you.’ Tameem al dari said,' When it named a man for us we were afraid of it lest it be a devil.'

Then we set off, rushing, until we came to that monastery, where we found the hugest man we had ever seen, bound strongly in chains with his hands tied to his neck and his legs bound from the knees to the ankles with iron shackles. We said, ‘Woe to you, who are you?’ He said, ‘You will soon find out about me, tell me who you are?’ They said, ‘We are people from Arabia who embarked on a ship, but the sea became wild and the waves tossed us about for one month, then they brought us to this island of yours. We took to the rowing boats and landed on this island. We were met by a beast with a great deal of hair and we could not tell his front from his back because he was so hairy. We said,' Woe to you, what are you?' It said,' I am al-Jassaasah.' We said,' What is al-Jassaasah?' It said,' Go to this man in the monastery for he is keen to know about you.' So we came rushing to you and we fled from it because we could not be sure that it was not a devil.’

He (that chained person) said, ‘Tell me about the date-palm trees of Baysaan.’ We said, ‘What do you want to know about them?’ He said, ‘I am asking you whether these trees bear fruit?’ We said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Soon they will not bear fruit.’ He said, ‘Tell me about the lake of Tabariyyah’ We said, ‘What do you want to know about it?’ He said, ‘Is there water in it?’ They said, ‘There is a great deal of water in it.’ He said, ‘Soon it will dry up.’ Then he said, ‘Tell me about the spring of Zughar (which is in the south of Syria).’ They said, ‘What do you want to know about it?’ He said, ‘Is there water in the spring and do the people grow crops with the water of the spring?’ We said to him, ‘Yes, there is plenty of water in it and the people grow crops with its water.’

He said, ‘Tell me about the unlettered Prophet, what has he done?’ We said, ‘He has left Makkah and has settled in Yathrib.’ He said, ‘Do the Arabs fight against him?’ We said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘How did he deal with them?’ We told him that he had prevailed over the Arabs in his vicinity and they had shown obedience to him. He said to us, ‘Has it really happened?’ We said ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘If it is so that is better for them that they show obedience to him. Now I will tell you about myself. I am the Dajjal and soon I will be given permission to emerge. So I will come out and travel in the land, and will not spare any town but I will stay for forty nights, except Makkah and Taybah (Madina). They are both forbidden to me, every time I try to enter one of them, I will be met by an angel with a sword in his hand, who will bar my way, and on every route there will be angels guarding it.’

She (Fatimah) said, 'Then the Messenger of Allah struck the minbar with his staff and said, “This is Taybah, this is Taybah, this is Taybah” meaning Madeenah.' “Did I not tell you this before?” The people said,' Yes.' The prophet said, “I liked the story of Tameem because it agrees with what I used to tell you about him and about Makkah and Madina. But he is in the Syrian Sea (Mediterranean) or the Yemeni Sea (Arabian Sea). No, rather he is in the East, he in the East, he is in the East,” and he pointed towards the East with his hand. She said,' I memorized this from the Messenger of Allah.'
(Muslim)
The Blessed Holy Prophet said about the Dajjal in this famous hadith “....he is in the East, he is in East,he is in the East”, meaning that he is East of Taybah or Madinah.


Two possible locations
If I would draw a line from Mecca going eastwards and as you can see, it points to a place just above North of the island of Masirah (see map 1).

If on the other hand, I draw a line from Madinah, going Eastwards, it would go towards the Gulf of Oman. It is possible that the island may be located near the presently known UAE and Bahrain, where the 5th Fleet of the arch satan, USA, has its naval command. Likely that there is an island located in the sea near the town of Shinas on mainland Oman or possibly near the Musandan peninsula. See map 2 below.





The Tribes of Arabia
Map 3. Approximate locations of some of the important tribes and Empire of the Arabian Peninsula at the dawn of Islam (approximately 600 CE / 50 BH). (Courtesy wikicommons).


Tribes of Arabia circa 600 AD.
As you can see, the Arab tribe of Lakhm was in Iraq and Judham had its origin in the Yemen but some time later migrated to Syria. These were probably sea-faring Arabs unlike the desert arabs who were mostly traders on caravan routes.



 
Map 4. Courtesy MODIS showing Cyclonic eddies and current and wave height variations in the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Sea.
What are the information we can use from the Hadith?

Fact
Inference
Logic
1. Tribe of Lakhm and Judham
Location in Arabian Peninsula on opposite sides.See map3. Most likely trading partners.
Yes. Their journey was probably from Red Sea to Persian Gulf for trade and vice versa,see map3.
2. Storm tossed for a month,see map4.
Affected by a great wind possibly part of a cyclone or monsoon and adverse sea currents.
Very likely the SouthWest Monsoon, which will bring them east. Occurs from June to September.see map 1.
3. 30 sailors
Used an Arab Dhow. Speed is limited to about 30 to 50 km a day.
Yes, see picture and count the men. Impossible for it to reach say England which is 20,000km away in 1 month.
4. Al Jasasah spoke in language they understood.Likely Arabic.
Still likely on islands off Arabian peninsula near the Gulf of Oman.
Yes
5. Dajjal similar
similar
Yes
6. Questions from dajjal
Predictions made by dajjal means that he is being used as an oracle by the cult that has him in chains.
The dajjalic system we face now has been established and is run by the Yahudi banking monsters of Rothschild. Dajjal is their “saint” and advisor.Yes.
7. “...in the East..” as mentioned by the Blessed Holy Prophet.
Location is on lattitude 28 North drawn from Medina eastwards.
Yes. Island is located on coast off Oman with an ancient castle/monastery. Oman has many such castles on its mainland.
8. Cannot be in African territory or England because these are South and North of Medina.
East of Medina as in 7.
Yes. Only possible location towards Gulf of Oman.
9. Dajjal claims he will be let loose soon.
Will be loose once the House of Rothschild collapses.
Yes, probable because Al-Mahdi will destroy their system.
10. The arabic language was not spoken by many people 1400 years ago. This limits the range from which the Dajjal can be found.
The Arabs were regarded as a barbaric and ignorant tribe until the advent of the Blessed Holy Prophet.
Yes. Most Dhows will travel close to the coast and use winds blowing from the sea towards land for navigation; the lateen sail of the Arab Dhow, an invention utilised by the British for later ships.

As always , blessings be upon the Holy Prophet and his family and companions and praises be to Allah who knows All and is Most Merciful to His servants.

This work is entirely my own opinion and I will welcome your suggestions. As always, ALLAH KNOWS BEST!

Monday, February 17, 2014

Analysis of verses number 11 and 20 of Surah Kahf ( Surah 18) of the Holy Quran.

Analysis of verses number 11 and 20 of Surah Kahf( Surah 18) of the Holy Quran.


Surah 18, verse 11 says: “Then We sealed up their hearing in the Cave for a number of years.”
(from translation by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall – The Meaning of the Holy Quran, publisher Mentor Books).

We can question the number of years the seven sleepers along with their dog, Qitmir, slept in the cave. The Quran answers this as well!

From the scientific and medical standpoint, this sleep was a form of suspended animation and a test for mankind to believe in the Greatness of Allah and His Supreme Plan.

The Abjad System
Introduced now is the Abjad system in the Arabic language which is a system of letters with their equivalent value in numbers. An example is the name Muhammed, which in Arabic is spelled as Mim+Ha+Mim+Dhal. This is totalled as 92, because Mim is 40, Ha is 8 and Dhal is 4. This adds up to 40+8+40+4 and totals as 92.

Another example, a famous one, is Bismillah HirRahman NirRaheem, which means "In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful." This equates to 786.

Based on the Abjad system( link here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abjad_numerals) which is as old as the Arabs themselves, we can rewrite verse 11 in mathematical terms based on the hint given by Allah, the last word being “......... years.”

So we total up 80+800+200+2+50+1+70+30+10+1+700+50+5+40+80+10+30+20+5+80+60+50+10+ 50+70+4+4 =2469.

We have a total of 2469 for the sleepers and their dog. Divide now this number by 7 persons and 1 dog and we get 2469/8 = 308.625. We use 8 as a divisor because there were 8 beings. This number is the number of years they slept as confirmed in the Quran in verse 26:

And (it is said) they tarried in their Cave three hundred years and add nine.”

And 308.625 approximates to 309!

The Quran operates in the Islamic calendar mode and the days are 354.367 days per muslim year, unlike 365.2422 days for the solar calendar. The lunar system is more accurate because we only need to adjust 1 day for every 19 years and this in contrast to the solar which has to adjust by adding 1 day every 4 years and hence the month of February alternates with 28 or 29 days(leap year).

The discrepancy of 0.625
Now we come to this discrepancy or is there one ? In the number we got, 308.625, which has a decimal .625 hanging with a purpose. From this we can calculate the exact time the sleepers woke up!

This .625 is the fraction of the year passed by as they slept and the moment they woke up can be worked out here.

  • 0.625x354.367 days, which is 221.479 days.
  • 221.479 divided by 29.53 days(average lunar month in days) is 7 months and 0.5 of a month.
  • 0.5 of a month equals 0.5x29.53 which is 14.765days.
  • this means 14 days and some more time of .765 of a day.
  • 0.765x24 hours = 18.36hours and we round this of to 18hours and 21 minutes.
  • In a 24 hour clock this would read differently in the solar method, but in Islam the night begins first, so we have to account for 18 hours and 21 minutes from sunset to past sunrise.
  • Assuming sunset and sunrise are about 10 to 14 hours apart(depending on the lattitude), we can safely say that average time is 12 hours between these 2 events.
  • We assume again that maghrib (sunset ) is at 6 pm. Then we have at sunrise(6am) 12 hours passing by and 6 hours and 21 minutes left.

We come to the conclusion that the sleepers woke up at around 21 minutes past 12 noon in the daytime and being hungry( brunchtime?) immediately set to send someone to the market to buy food. This is confirmed in verse 20.

The Quran mentions one companion saying in verse 20:

And in like manner We awakened them that they might question each other. A speaker from among them said: How long have ye tarried? They said we tarried a day or some part of a day, (Others) said: Your Lord best knoweth what ye have tarried. Now send one of you with this your silver coin unto the city, and let him see what food is purest there and bring you a supply thereof. Let him be courteous and let no man know of you.”

Also, if someone oversleeps, he would always ask upon waking up and realising that quite a substantial part of the day has passed, he would ask, “What time is it?”

Remember there were NO clocks in this period and time was told by reckoning from sun's altitude in the sky, from phases of the moon and the stars.

If you have stayed in the Arab lands, most markets open after sunrise and close by asr or before sunset.That is the hurry. There were NO ELECTRIC LIGHTS and markets operated in the light of the sun.This getting up in the morning is confirmed in the verses number 20.
Blessings be upon the great prophet of Islam,the unlettered one, as foretold in the scriptures, Muhammed Mustafa(peace be upon him) and upon his family and seed.

And as always, ALLAH KNOWS BEST! ALLAHU AKBAR!

Allrights reserved, reproduction by permission is granted to all.

You can look forward to my next essay on “How Suspended Animation can be accomplished”, InshaAllah!

Thursday, January 2, 2014

Under the Sirian Sun



Under the Sirian Sun.

The search for planets on Sirius star system which lies at 2.64 parsecs (8.3 ly) from Earth has proven so far to be unfruitful. Over a period of over 1.5 centuries since the discovery of Sirius B in 1862, a white dwarf companion, many astronomers had hoped that the star would reveal its third companion, a brown dwarf , which has been projected to exist by gravitational perturbations as according to Devant et al(1).


Alvan Clark's discovery in 1862 of Sirius B was a watershed in the use of gravitational computations to infer presence of a companion. Now we have satellites to peer even more but still this star system has kept itself veiled from the discovery of its children.

I would posit that there are several reasons for the inability so far to detect planets on Sirius. These are:

  1. Brightness of Sirius A causes too much 'noise' in the electronics.
  2. The use of filters affects the system as well and any light from the planets are also filtered.
  3. Focus is on a putative third star instead of possible planetary system.
  4. Looking for transits across the star which is not detectable due to 1. and also the the line of sight may not correspond to the star's protoplanetary disc formed millions of years ago and aligned not to the Earth's point of view.
  5. There is the possibility that the planets are in a polar orbit i.e. 90 degrees to our point of view, see ellipse fig.1.
  6. the white dwarf with its immense gravity would have in its lifetime destroyed any planets that would have formed in the system
  7. gravitational stability of the system indicates that planets are possible at certain locations see Devant(1), and figure 2.
  8. The use of gravitational microlensing is recommended.
  9. The launch in December 2013 of the Gaia spacecraft offers a good opportunity to look for the Einstein ring effect on Sirius.
  10. Gaia will study 1 billion stars and take readings on every star every six seconds. This will enable a large number of planets to be detected as the Einstein time will have been in effect for many stars.


 Gaia spacecraft launched into solar orbit period of 180 days. For more information go to http://sci.esa.int/gaia/

In their paper, Thalmann et al(2) has stipulated that precision astrometry suffers from many insidious faults which result in errors. These include changes in differential atmospheric refraction from ground based systems, changes in pixel scale and orientation and other ambient conditions. Thalmann has also confirmed the absence of dust around Sirius B and this possibly indictates a planet sterile environment as far as the orbit of Sirius B is concerned.



Sirius and the “missing” planets.





The sketch of the ellipse (courtesy wikipedia) above indicates to an observer out in space that the star system of Sirius, has possibly a planet that swings past 2 stars. The small black square represents the planet(s) and the 2 blue rectangles Sirius A and B. The Y plane rectangle is Sirius B and the X plane one is Sirius A.
Assuming the Earth lies somewhere along or near the Y plane then it is very obvious that the planet cannot be seen as a transit feature as it is very close to the extremly luminous Sirius A.

Sirius B
Companion α CMa B
Period (P) 50.090 ± 0.055 yr
Semi-major axis (a) 7.50 ± 0.04"
Eccentricity (e) 0.5923 ± 0.0019
Inclination (i) 136.53 ± 0.43°
Longitude of the node (Ω) 44.57 ± 0.44°
Periastron epoch (T) 1894.130 ± 0.015
Argument of periastron (ω)
(secondary)
147.27 ± 0.54°
Courtesy wikipedia.

I would posit that the probability of life occurring near this white dwarf is quite unlikely as in reaching that stage of stellar evolution it has essentially destroyed any planets it had in the past. It has tremendous gravity and is only slightly larger than the Earth. If it has any planets they are likely to be captured from free-floating planets.

Further, Sirius B is an X-ray source unlike Sirius A which resembles more like our sun but is twice as large and more luminous.

α CMa A
Mass 2.02M
Radius 1.711R
Luminosity 25.4L
Surface gravity (logg) 4.33cgs
Temperature 9,940K
Metallicity [Fe/H] 0.50dex
Rotation 16 km/s
Age 2–3 × 108years
α CMa B
Mass 0.978M
Radius 0.0084 ± 3%R
Luminosity 0.026L
Surface gravity (logg) 8.57cgs
Temperature

25200K









Sirius B is an X-ray source.

Gravitational microlensing and Sirius

With a white dwarf in tow the complexities of this system are many. The historical viewpoint that sometime in the very distant past, Sirius B went into a red giant phase and then collapsed into a white dwarf would indicate that the possibility of Sirius A being a captured star exists. Sirius A may have been captured along with its putative planets and some of these then settled into stable orbits that would not cause escape from or collisions with Sirius B.

Alternatively, accretion of stellar matter from the Sirius B or A stars may have resulted in the unique protoplanetary disc being formed at such alignments as to make it compatible with the combined gravitational impulses from both stars see Fig.2.
Hence this unique alignment is one that is unexpected. But in space, expect the unexpected.

The best possible option therefore to see the planets on Sirius is the use of gravitational microlensing which would at the appropriate angle provide theoretically up to 1000 times magnification of the planets brightness.(3)

Planets in the lensing zone can be detected from 1 to 4 AU from the main star(3).  
 I predict that there are planets within this region based on the 90% probability given by Devant(1) for a massive brown dwarf to exist. And, drawing from Kepler's laws the period would be about 5 years around the primary.


The expected brown dwarf is replaced by a system of planets as well as asteroid belts as in the case of the star Vega which so far seems to have 2 of these belts.

Mathematics of Microlensing.
As the maths is theoretically founded on some assumptions and to make it easier to understand, I have posted the equation below :


The angle theta represents the size of the Einstein ring and since the sensitivity of the Gaia instruments are reading to values of microarcseconds, then the microlensing events are recordable.


The einstein ring itself has been worked out to be about 2 AU and this means that it is easily observable provided the microlensing event takes place at the einstein time, which normally lasts for a few hours to several months.



Planets in a lensing zone normally around 1 to 4 AU from the primary are detectable.(3)

For the Sirius system, accretion of ejected material from the primary may have severely
affected planet formation in the proper plane because the white dwarf's gravity would have aligned the protoplanets so much off the normal ecliptic as to be not in the line of sight as seen from Earth.

With time, the planets form at angles that are severely off the ecliptic.

Numerical stability algorithms show that material is stable in Binary stars to about 3 AU from the primary as long as the inclination of the protoplanetary disc is around 60°(4).
But this has not accounted for gravitational pertubations from white dwarf companions as in the case of Sirius.


Please do read my references for further details.

References:

  1. Is Sirius a triple star? D.Benest and JL Duvent. Astron.Astrophys. 299, 621-628(1995).
  2. Piercing the glare: A direct imaging search for planets in the Sirius system. 
    C Thalman et al. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 732:L34, May 10, 2011.
  3. Detecting Earth-mass planets with gravitational microlensing. DP Bennett and Sun Hong Rhee. Astrophysical Journal 472:660-664, 1996 Dec 1st.  
  4. Discovery of a Jupiter/Saturn analog using gravitational microlensing. Gaudi et al.
    Science 319, 927 (2008).
     


For mathematics of gravitational microlensing please read :

Strong gravitational lensing: relativity in action.
Joachim Wambsganss,1 and B Paczynski 2
1Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum f¨ur Astronomie der Universit¨at Heidelberg,
M¨onchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany email: jkw@uni-hd.de
2Visitor, Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08540, USA.


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Friday, June 14, 2013