Further, the system is a S-type where the planet orbits Sirius A only and not P-type.
- Sirius AB is a binary with a 50.09 year orbit of the white dwarf companion.
- Sirius A is more luminous than the Sun and twice as massive.
- Orbital stability considerations limit any planet formed near Sirius A to orbits which would not interfere with the returning white dwarf, Sirius B.
- This in itself means that no stable orbit or planet can exist that is suitable for life further than a certain distance from the Sirius A – the distance calculated from some papers indicate at least a separation from Sirius B by 1.5 AU.
- Planets formed at Sirius A therefore can only be within the orbital distance from its parent at maximum of distance 6AU before serious perturbations result from Sirius B's gravitational pull.
The white dwarf has successfully cleared any debris resulting from planet formation.
where L is the stellar luminosity in solar units,Teff is the stellar effective temperature in K units, in this case 9900K,Ts= 5700 K, ai = 2.7619e-5, bi = 3.8095e-9, ao = 1.3786e-4, bo = 1.4286e-9, ris = 0.72, and ros = 1.77. The L value for SiriusA is 25.4.
- where T is period in years, a is semi-major axis and μ is standard gravitational parameter,we derive a value for a of 3.766AU for this planet.
Based on the values we obtained for SiriusAb, we can punch this into the above equation and we get a value that is very close to 0. The actual value is -0.328.
A value greater than plus 1 indicates that it is out of the zone. But our planet seems to have just made it! From this reading it is quite a close value to Earth's, which has a value of -0.46.
Planet SiriusAc is 2.37AU and planet SiriusAd is 1.5AU. The values are calculated from the formula from Kepler's 2nd Law.
- The production of very strong pigmentation to prevent cellular damage by the star's intense radiation.
- Going underground or deeper into seas to shield from harmful rays.
- DNA repair mechanisms that can repair damage and enhance protection in ways unknown to humans at present.
- Cocoon life that would go into hibernation for years especially when the dark star companion, Sirius B, approaches. Its orbital period is 50.09 years. This means that upon its closest approach its time to swing past Sirius A could be in the region of a few years. This would be a “Dark Phase” in this planet's history as Sirius B is an X-ray source.Theory becomes Dogma!
Presence of moons on this planet will result in significant shielding in the planetary ecosystem as this will limit the chaos caused by shifting tectonic plates as the white dwarf approaches as well as limiting tidal fluctuations be they magma or water.
This therefore will confirm that Planets do NOT take billions of years to form.
Evidence from supernova explosions indicate that planets form geologically very soon after and there is evidence to suggest that the time period is in the thousands of years! This will account for the existence of 2 billion planets as projected in some estimates.
In 2006, an MIT scientist, using the Spitzer telescope, and colleagues discovered a planetary circumstellar disc orbiting a magnetar as shown above (courtesy wikipedia). The star went nova about 100,000 years ago and is about 13,000 ly from Earth.
- Formation and detectability of terrestrial planets around αCentauri B. Geudes et al(2007). Astrophysics Journal,679:1582-1587.2008 June 1st.
- Piercing the glare: A direct imaging search for planets in the Sirius system. Thalman et al , Astrophysical Journal Letters, 732:L34(5pp), 2011 May 10th.
- Kasting, J. F., Whitmire, D. P., and Reynolds, R. T. (1993). Habitable zones around main sequence stars. Icarus, 101, 108-108.
- Habitable Zone Distance (HZD) A habitability metric for exoplanets - Planetary Habitability Laboratory.
- The ultimate cataclysm: the orbital(in)stability of terrestrial planets inexoplanet systems including planets in binaries.Elke Pilat-Lohinger. Intl Journal of Astrobiology8 (3): 175–182 (2009).
- Rivera, Eugenio J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Haghighipour, Nader; Meschiari, Stefano (June 2010). "The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A Uranus-mass Fourth Planet for GJ 876 in an Extrasolar Laplace Configuration"